I think attack effects boil down this way:
Hit: Something happens if and only if the attack hits.
Miss: Something happens if and only if the attack misses - usually a lesser version of the "Hit" effect.
Effect: Happens hit or miss. Can be unrelated to primary effect.
After effect: Triggers after the primary effect ends, generally due to a successful saving throw.
Originally Posted by PH1, p212Putting on a suit of armor always takes at least 5
minutes, which means that it’s an activity you can
undertake only outside combat (likely while you’re
taking a short rest).