Guns, in a 3e/3.X/PF setting work about as well as exotics as half the other things on the list. I mean, look at the list of monk weapons that get slapped with that label. For d20, exotic has as much to do with what is common as opposed to what is simple to use. Pulling the trigger on a gun isn't hard. Learning how to actually shoot well under stress is much harder. If it weren't difficult police would never miss when forced to use their weapons. The military would have to invest such large amounts of time training troops to fight effectively with their weapons. And military elite units wouldn't make that level of training look like kids play. Just in the case of D&D tech level firearms, learning what to do when things go snap and not boom when you pull the trigger, and deal with other minor malfunctions, leading targets and estimating bullet drop and drift by range are part of the proficiency. I'd say that would be at least a martial slot.
Reload times are going to be you're biggest dispute I would suppose. Muzzle loading fire arms, especially pre-precussion cap with the minie ball, takes a bit of time. Pre-loading charges into tubes that can be poured instead of measured, helps. Along with loading blocks, they can cut down the time and fiddling with components at lot. This is assuming no "paper cartridge" such as used in the American Civil War. But, to keep things simple I'd treat it no differently than a heavy cross bow. If people are okay with hooking up your windlass, loading the bolt etc. in one round, why not the same with guns when you're working from preloads?
For rifles/muskets I'd put damage in a 2d6 range. If you're hurling a .50 + ball of lead at someone, it does a lot of damage on a hit.
Pistols, a 2d4.
Ranges are where people get picky. A musket has a fair range and a lot more ability for being accurate than given credit for. Volley fire does not encourage good marksmanship, but these aren't the rifled barrel, sniper weapons of their day. I'd still give them range increments for them around 50/60 feet. Puts you at 3 range increments just past the 50 yard line. Pistols, I'd give 25/30 feet, again about increments at 25 yards. Rifled barrels I'd give longer range, but a slower reload time, 1/2 perhaps.
blackstarraven, just a small historical note. The .30-30 cartridge wasn't produced until 1893, when most of the fighting with the American Indians, even the Plains tribes, would have ended a few years prior. What they would have normally encountered, if fighting the US Military of the post Civil War era would have been the .45-70 in something like the Springfield trapdoor rifle, perhaps the .52 Spencer repeating rifle. Both with more raw power than the .30-30, despiting being one of the first smokeless powder loads civilians were introduced to. Oh, Henry lever actions may have seen limited use just after the Civil War, in .44 RF. and been used by units moved westward after the war.